What is the significance of unstructured exploration in the learning process? How does the tendency to wonder (or probe) support learning and problem solving? How do environmental and contextual factors support the tendency to wonder and probe?



Are there specific styles or patterns of thinking that might equip or help individuals decode complex information and eventually learn? Is there a relationship between thinking styles/habits/dispositions and meaningful learning?


What role does persistence in the face of ambiguity play in learning and problem solving? For example, Einstein’s tentative belief in an orderly physical world was challenged when he observed the compass needle point northward (Gardner, 1983). The observation led to confusion that induced thinking and eventually reaching an understanding. Between the period of confusion and eventual knowledge acquisition, one can assume was a period marked by a behavior that can best be described as persistence: Persistence in probing to seek clarification, connecting the dots, and reaching an understanding by cracking the problem.


What is it about looking (e.g., observing art) that is drawing the attention of researchers in the field of education? Is there a link between looking and cognition? How can looking promote broader thinking skills that facilitate learning? Why do developmental psychologists and academics in the field of education like Howard Gardner contend arts to be a matter of the mind?​​